It’s funny goodluck what is ciprofloxacin hcl 500 used for The short answer is China. If you look at the quality of investment in Africa's natural resource industries, it is poor. Production ssets are sourced from China. Engineers and artisans too. Soft loans (probably) include clauses which allow for increased immigration into Africa of relatively poor Chinese. How else to explain why we have Chinese marketeers, chicken-rearers, shopkeepers etc.? China offers seductive loans for infrastructure projects, identified by them, and which are almost always built by Chinese firms. Look at the growing national debt of, say, Zambia. The other beneficiaries are indeed, the growing middle class. With their increased wealth, they shop at foreign owned shops, buying imported, most often Chinese ,goods. There is some trickle down through employment in service and transport industries, but to the shanty town or rural dweller, the middle classes are remote and elite.